The Boxer Rebellion (aka: Righteous Harmonious Fists Society), 1899 - 1901;
In 1895, when China was defeated by Japan, 'carving up the Chinese melon' was a phrase that described the European and American exploiting the weakened chinese goverment to take over the commercial and railway opportunities. The British took territories around Hong Kong, the German took a hold on Shantung, and Russians took Port Arthur. The Americans got nothing because they were focused on the Phillipines.
The Imperial government was historically and normally the target of secret societies, but the attitude toward foreign presence reversed the relationship. The Imperial government began funding and supporting these secret societies, such as the 'The Righteous Harmonious Fists'. The Empress Dowager, got fully behind the rebels, and their focus was to rid China of these foreign takeovers, and to preserve their culture.
The Boxer Reberllion was a group of rebellious fighters battling the 'foreign influence' in trade, politics and religion. This occured soon after the Japanese had defeated China in 1895 and there were territorial and commercials concessions made to the Europeans from China. The Righteous Harmonious Fists were a secret society that had existed for many years, but when the 'foreign devils' had taken pieces of their homeland, the society rebelled by supporting the ritualistic practice of Chinese Martial Arts and Weapons.
The Society attacked foreign symbols and creations, which unfortunately
also meant Chinese Christians. In 1899, this also included a British
missionary. To 'protect' its people and interest in China, the Europeans
placed military forces on the Chinese Coast. When the British foreign
minister of Peking (Beijing now), requested protection, 430 men, that
included British and US Marines went in. The telegraph lines were cut
shortly after a request from the foreign minister urgently requested
more assistance. One of the other main targets was the Manchurian
Government figures, that were considered 'European Stooges'. The Empress
Dowager supported the Boxer Rebellion, since they were determined to
remove the foreigners and made a pact with them to turn a blind eye, and
The Japanese and European forces continued to occupy Peking and the northern countryside, removing concentration cells of the Boxers Society. On February 1, 1901, Chinese authorities agreed to abolish the Righteous Harmonious Fists.
Jingshan Park was part of the Forbidden Palace until early 1900's when walls were pulled down and a road cut through to the rear of the palace. Equipped with a moat, it is still a magnificent, though it has been scarred.
It is said that the Boxer Rebellion assisted in restoring Chinese Pride in their society. It was believed that all that had been lost was due to these outside influences and occupation. The people began to believe in this as well.
It is said that the fall of the Boxer Rebellion weakened the Ching dynasty, and led removal of the boy emperor. Making China a Republic. Yuan Shikai was the first Republic President.